A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. A turbine is a turbo machine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which has a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor.

Having already gone through the earlier blogs particularly, Multiphase Flow Modeling using CFD  wherein we discussed about multiphase flow physics i.e. What is a multiphase flow? What are its classifications ? and Mathematical Treatments in CFD Modeling of Multiphase Flows where we explained about the different mathematical modeling approaches and differences between them. 

Human comfort has been a major concern in densely populated cities. The climate changes due urban heat island and global warming affects the human comfort. The airflow within the urban canopy layer drives the moisture, heat and other types of variables in the urban streets. Hence urban areas should be designed to ensure the comfort, health and safety of their inhabitants and users.

During the recent years, electric power systems have changed their structure in order to achieve better performance and efficiency in the electricity production, transmission and distribution. An important aspect of power generation systems operating in the environment of the competitive electric energy market is the increased use of renewable energy sources. Hydro power is not only environmentally friendly, but also cost-effective.

Writing a UDF i.e. a user defined function, has always been a challenging stuff for CFD engineers those have never tried out one, nevertheless has been a matter of interest for all. Hereby we present a short article to demonstrate the significance of writing a UDF in CFD modeling with a simple test case that would help us all to develop an understanding at the introductory level.

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