Human comfort has been a major concern in densely populated cities. The climate changes due urban heat island and global warming affects the human comfort. The airflow within the urban canopy layer drives the moisture, heat and other types of variables in the urban streets. Hence urban areas should be designed to ensure the comfort, health and safety of their inhabitants and users.

During the recent years, electric power systems have changed their structure in order to achieve better performance and efficiency in the electricity production, transmission and distribution. An important aspect of power generation systems operating in the environment of the competitive electric energy market is the increased use of renewable energy sources. Hydro power is not only environmentally friendly, but also cost-effective.

Writing a UDF i.e. a user defined function, has always been a challenging stuff for CFD engineers those have never tried out one, nevertheless has been a matter of interest for all. Hereby we present a short article to demonstrate the significance of writing a UDF in CFD modeling with a simple test case that would help us all to develop an understanding at the introductory level.

The building sector currently accounts for about one-third of the energy consumption worldwide and much of this consumption is directly linked to building design and construction. Building energy consumption keeps rising in recent years due to growth in population, increasing demand for healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environment, global climate changing, etc.

Multiphase flow is the simultaneous flow of two of more phases. Multiphase flow phenomenon is commonly observed in many natural and industrial environments. CFD is extensively used in design of equipment and processes which involve multiphase flows. Knowledge and proficiency of modeling multiphase flow is a highly distinguished area in chemical and mechanical engineering industry. In the recent years, CFD has become a highly productive tool for modeling multiphase flows in various industrial applications.

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